I need help with a Health & Medical question. All explanations and answers will be used to help me learn.
1-. which of the following behaviors may be (1) ethical but illegal, (2) legal but unethical, (3) illegal and unethical, and (4) legal and ethical.
A. Working in a clinic that performs abortions
b. Respecting the wishes of a client suffering from ALS that he be permitted to die with dignity and not placed on “breathing machines”
c. Respecting the health surrogate’s wishes regarding termination of life support of her friend
d. Observing a coworker take out two tablets of oxycodone as ordered for pain management for his patient but keeping one for himself, administering only one tablet to the patient.
2-. differentiate among the following: deontological theories, utilitarianism, and principlism.
3-. what do you think about health-care professionals disclosing information to clients about a poor prognosis, even though the information may cause severe distress.
4– What do they think about health-care professionals disclosing information to clients against family wishes?
5.- You see a colleague use another nurse’s password to access the medication administration system and take out a narcotic. What would you do?
6.- Your colleague’s child fell and was brought to the emergency department. She comes back up to the unit and tells you that they cleaned and debrided the wound, and she needs to change the dressings twice a day using a wet to dry method. You see her go into the supply system and remove the dressings and saline using a patient’s identification number. What would you do?
7.- You are caring for a patient who has a terminal disease. He asks you if he is dying. Would you tell him? If yes, how? If no, what might you say? .
8-You are administering hydromorphone to a patient. The patient asks you what you are administering. Would you tell the patient about the medication?
Expert Solution Preview
In this medical college assignment, we will be discussing various ethical scenarios and dilemmas that health care professionals frequently encounter. It is important for medical students to understand the ethical considerations involved in different situations and be able to make informed decisions. We will also discuss the concepts of deontological theories, utilitarianism, and principlism, which are frameworks used to approach ethical dilemmas in healthcare. Additionally, we will explore the disclosure of information to clients, the importance of patient confidentiality, and professional misconduct. Let’s now proceed to answer the questions.
a. Working in a clinic that performs abortions:
This falls under the category of (1) ethical but illegal. While abortion may be considered ethically justifiable in certain situations, its legality varies across different jurisdictions. Therefore, working in a clinic that offers abortion services may be ethically permissible but can be illegal in some regions.
b. Respecting the wishes of a client suffering from ALS that he be permitted to die with dignity and not placed on “breathing machines”:
This behavior is categorized as (4) legal and ethical. Respecting a patient’s autonomy and their wishes regarding end-of-life decisions is considered both legally and ethically acceptable, as long as it aligns with applicable laws and guidelines.
c. Respecting the health surrogate’s wishes regarding termination of life support of her friend:
This situation falls under (3) illegal and unethical if the health surrogate’s wishes go against legal requirements or protocols for withdrawing life support. However, if the health surrogate’s decision is legally authorized, it would be classified as (4) legal and ethical.
d. Observing a coworker take out two tablets of oxycodone as ordered for pain management for his patient but keeping one for himself, administering only one tablet to the patient:
This behavior is (3) illegal and unethical. It involves theft, breach of trust, and withholding medication from the patient for personal use. Such actions are both morally wrong and illegal, as they violate professional standards and potentially harm patient care.
Deontological theories focus on the inherent nature of actions rather than their outcomes. They emphasize moral duties and principles that should guide ethical decision-making. Examples include Kantian ethics, which advocates for following universal moral rules irrespective of consequences.
Utilitarianism, on the other hand, is a consequentialist ethical theory that prioritizes actions based on the greatest overall happiness or benefit to the majority. It weighs the potential outcomes and consequences of alternative actions and chooses the option that maximizes overall happiness or welfare.
Principlism is an ethical framework that combines principles such as autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. It considers these principles as fundamental in healthcare decision-making, recognizing their importance in maintaining patient-centered care, while also addressing the ethical complexity of specific situations.
Disclosing information about a poor prognosis to clients, despite the potential distress it may cause, is an ethical obligation of healthcare professionals. Patients have the right to be fully informed about their health conditions to make decisions regarding their treatment, future plans, and potential end-of-life choices. While the disclosure may initially cause distress, it allows patients to have a realistic understanding of their situation and participate in decisions regarding their healthcare.
Healthcare professionals must prioritize the well-being and autonomy of their patients. It is essential to respect the wishes and confidentiality of clients, even if they conflict with the desires of their family members. However, in situations where family dynamics and relationships significantly impact patient care, healthcare professionals may engage in open and respectful communication to bridge the gap between conflicting parties and find a solution that aligns with ethical standards and patient autonomy.
Witnessing a colleague using another nurse’s password to access the medication administration system and taking out a narcotic raises significant concerns of professional misconduct, breach of confidentiality, and potentially illegal activity. As a healthcare professional, it is crucial to report such incidents following the established protocols and reporting mechanisms within the organization. This ensures patient safety, upholds professional responsibilities, and maintains the integrity of the healthcare system.
Observing a colleague accessing patient supplies using someone else’s identification number raises serious concerns about patient safety, fraud, and unethical behavior. It is imperative to address this issue promptly and appropriately. One should consider reporting the incident to the appropriate authority within the organization, following the established protocols for addressing misconduct. This will help ensure patient safety, maintain professional integrity, and uphold ethical standards.
When a patient asks about their prognosis, healthcare professionals should prioritize honesty and open communication. While delivering such news can be challenging, it is essential to respect the patient’s autonomy and provide information that allows them to make informed decisions. The delivery of this information should be done sensitively, taking into consideration the patient’s emotional and psychological well-being. Effective communication skills and empathy play a vital role in conveying difficult news, allowing patients to process the information at their own pace while providing support and reassurance.
As healthcare professionals, it is crucial to provide patients with accurate information about the medications they are receiving. Transparency and open communication contribute to patient-centered care and informed decision-making. Therefore, if the patient asks about the medication they are receiving, it is essential to explain the medication’s name, purpose, possible side effects, and any necessary precautions, fostering trust, understanding, and ensuring patient safety.